ANNONA – Cultivation to Harvesting Full Guide

ANNONA – Cultivation to Harvesting Full Guide

INTRODUCTION

Annona Cultivation

 in this article, I’m going to tell you about the Annona Cultivation

  • Kingdom:- Plantae
  • Order:- Magnoliales
  • Family:- Annonaceae
  • Genus:- Annona Corr.Serr
  • popular all over the world as delicious and fruitful fruit.
  • Annona is native to Central America.
  • 50 varieties of isolates in the world.
  • 5 species of Annona in Sri Lankan.
  • species are tap-rooted, evergreen or semi-deciduous, tropical trees or shrubs.
  • This fruit typically grows in areas where the temperature does not drop below 28 F (-2°C). Especially Cuba, Jamaica and the Philippines.
  • Most distributed areas in Sri Lanka,
    • Soursop and bullock’s – low country wet zone and intermediate wet zone.
    • Sugar apple                          –   low country dry zone and littoral areas.
    • Cherimoya                            –     Mountainous regions

IMPORTANCE

  • To use make ice-cream, juice.
  • biologically important chemical composition is due to diarrhoea, constipation, joint swelling, food poisoning, vomiting, liver failure, skin diseases, diabetes and kidney-related ailments.
  • the roots and leaf chemicals have been found to be a source of cancer prevention.
  • roots, leaves and seeds have been identified as bio-pesticides.
  • It is a good treatment for stress and neurological disorders.
  • effective anti-cancer drug that helps the immune system to prevent weight loss and hair loss.
  • As a preventive treatment for diarrhoea and fever.
  • the mother’s milk improves after childbirth.
  • Dessert is a refreshing fruit drink with sugar washes.

RECOMMENDED VARIETIES

  • There are 4 (four) species in Annona.
    • Cherimoya          :-  Annona cherimola Miller.
    •  Soursop                              :-  Annona muricata L.
    • Bullock’s heart  :-  Annona reticulata L.
    • Sugar apple        :-  Annona squamosa L.
  • There are one hybrid species.
    • Atimoya

Cherimoya

  • It has a heart shape fruit.
  • The exposure is light green.
  • The bruising there is mildew.
  • The gemish is creamy color in nature.
  • It is a delicious fruit.

Soursop

  • Local name – katu anode, katu athaa
  • The fruit is green color.
  • It is often oval shape or irregular shape.
  • There are thorn-like scratches on the surface.
  • The idea of having a sweet curry with a sweet sour juice is very interesting.

Bllock’s heart

  • Local name – waeli athaa
  • fruit shape is heart.
  • Discoloration is brownish yellow.
  • Output is marked in oval shape.
  •  No scratches.
  • Colorless version is creamy and sand-like surgical elements.

Sugar apple

  • Local name – sini anode, sini athaa, Seethappalam.
  • fruit is round shape.
  • Two colors of fruits.
    • Green color
      • Purple color
  • Outside of fruit clear round or oval shape.

Atimoya (Hybrid variety)

  • It’s give intermediate features between cherimoya and sugar apple.
  • Most popular as a fresh fruit.
  • It is highly nutritious.

NUTRITION OF ANNONA

  • Energy                  – 104.0 KCal
  • Protein                 – 1.6 g
  • Fat                          – 0.4 g
  • Carbohydrate    – 23.5 g
  • Calcium                                – 17.0 mg
  • Prospers              – 47.0 mg
  • Iron                        – 1.5 mg
  • Vitamin C             – 37 mg

CULTIVATION

Annona Cultivation

CLIMATIC REQUIREMENT

  • Most suitable for tropical and subtropical climates.
  • Ideal areas- up to 1500m.
  • Temperature- >18°C
  • Rainfall- 1500mm

SOIL REQUIREMENT

  • Soil PH: – 5-10.
  • Suitable for well-aerated and well-drained soils.
  •  well cultivated in infertile soil.
  • Soursop and sugar apple – cultivated in a wide range of soil from sand to clay.

AGRONOMIC PRACTICES

Propagation

  • Seedlings
    • takes a month to sprout due to heavy seeding.
    • Germination can be hastened by soaking in water 3 days.
    • Germination percentage- 90-95%.
  • Budding plant
    • All varieties can be propagated in budding.
    • Wedge drafting is most suitable.

Spacing

  • Spacing:– (5m * 4m)
    • Needed of plant: – 500 plants / ha , (200 plants / ac).
    • Hole size:-  (60*60*60) cm

Fertilizer application

  • Urea, TSP, and MOP are used as fertilizer.
    • Compost is used as organic fertilizer.

Irrigation

  • Water is applied daily until one year for plants.

Weed management

  • Weeds should be removed in a circle of about 1m around the tree.

PEST AND DISEASES MANAGEMENT

Dieback

  • This is the most visible disease in Annona cultivation.
    • Control:-  pruning, Apply fungicide

Anthracnose

  • Damage the quality of fruits.
    • Control:- pruning. Apply water and fertilizer properly

Scale insect

Control: – Field sanitation, Removal of excise, Apply pesticide.

  • Mealybug, fruit fly, squirrels and bats damage to the Annona cultivation. 

SPECIAL PRACTICES

Pruning

  • Not fruiting branches and dead branches should be removed by using pruning.

Pollination

  • Fruiting is weak in Annona cultivation due to flowers don’t pollinate incorrectly.
    • To avoid this, artificial pollination must be done. But this is a difficult task practically.

HARVESTING

Annona Cultivation
  • Get yield in 3-4 years from seed born plants.
  • Get yield in 2 years from budding plants.
  • Potential Yield: –
    • Seedling -15-25 fruits/ plant/ year.
    • Buddings-25-40 fruits/plant/ year.

check out my other article:Wood Apple Cultivation

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