Beet Root Cultivation (Complete Guide)

Beet Root Cultivation (Complete Guide)

Beet Root Cultivation

Introduction

Introduction in this article, I’m going to tell you about the Beet Root Cultivation

  • Botanical name – Beta Vulgaris
  • Family- Chenopodiaceae

Top root and leaves are the edible parts of beetroot. Top root is swollen because foods are store in its colour due to the presence of the water-soluble red pigment called betacyanin

Cultivation

Beet Root Cultivation
  • Beetroot can be grown in all agro-ecological regions
  • Grows well under dry conditions
  • Adapted to wet weather conditions as well as for daily weather conditions

Soil requirements

  • Well-drained loamy soils are suitable
  • Addition of organic manure assures good growing conditions
  • pH 6.3 – 7.5

Recommended varieties

  • Crimson globe
  • Detroit dark red
  • Hybrid varieties-Red ace, Leader, Red eagle

Crimson globe

  • Root to flat round shape roots
  • Internal colour – dark red
  • Redish purple outer colour
  • Center of the root light red colour
  • Most popular variety among farmers
  • Maturation time 75-90 days
  • Detroit dark red
  • Globular shape
  • Colour – exterior reddish-purple, interior deep reddish-purple

Field Establishment and Cultural Practices

Seed requirements – 5-6Kg/ha

Nursery management

  • Select suitable site
  • Land preparation – break large soil clods into small-sized particles
  • Prepare raised beds – 3×1m and 15-20cm hight
  • Apply organic manure 3-4 Kg
  • Sterilization
  • Make small furrows
  • Seed treatment with fungicide
  • Seed sawing and covered with sterilized soil
  • Mulching and watering
  • Cover the beds by using polyethene to avoid sun rays and rain
  • Remove the mulch after 5-6 days
  • Remove the polyethene cover 10 days before planting to hardening
  • Land preparation
  • Soil should be ploughed to a depth of 20-30 cm and worked to a very fine tilth
  • Make raised beds or ridges
  • Apply 10-20 t/ha of organic matter
  • Make planting holes according to the recommended spacing of the crop (size of the hole 30×30×30cm)
  • Add basal fertilizer mixture 2 days before planting

Field establishment

It soil pH is less than 5 apply dolomite 1-2 t/ha

Field establishment methods

  1. Direct seeding
  2. Transplanting
  • Transplant healthy 4-6 weeks old seeding (one plant per hole) and shading
  • Some farmers remove the top part of the leaves and a small portion of the top root before transplanting
  • Spacing – 30cm between rows and 16cm within rows

Cultural practices

Fertilizer recommendation (Kg/ha)

 UreaTSPMOP
BD165270125
TD 1165 125

Irrigation

Irrigate at 3-4 day intervals depending on soil type

Weed management

Weed manually at 2 weeks after planting and again just before applying a top dressing of fertilizer

Pest and Disease Control

Diseases

Cerospora leaf spot

 Symptoms

  • Fungal disease
  • Lesions with circular white centres on young leaves
  • Commonly affect during high temperature and pH conditions

Control

  • Treat seed with recommended fungicides
  • Rotate crops
  • Destroy infected plant debris
  • Spray foliage with a recommended fungicide

Dumping off

Symptoms

The seedling emerges and grows to a height of an inch or two than with and dies by showing fall off the stem near to the soil surface

Control

  • Apply recommended fungicides
  • Seed treatment
  • Soil sterilization

Pests

Cut Worm

Damage

Cut plant at the base

Control

  • Apply insecticides when damage is serious
  • Prothifos – 50%
  • Profenosphos – 50%

Leaf Miner

Damage

Larvae consumes internal tissues of leaves and make canals

Control

  • Yellow coloured polythene traps
  • Neem seed extract can be applied
  • Apply recommended chemicals

Nematodes

Damage

  • Damage to roots
  • Deformed roots and forked roots can be observed

Control

  • Turning of soil
  • In – cooperate poultry manure 10 day before seeding

Harvesting

Beet Root Cultivation

Harvesting Indices

  • Harvesting can be done 70-90 days after planting
  • 10-12 leaves
  • Length of the leaves 10-15 cm

Method

Harvest by pulling the plant without damaging the leaves

Potential yield

  • Hybrid Varieties:16-18 t/ha
  • Other Varieties: 12-15 t/ha

Post- Harvest Handling

  • Remove matured leaves
  • Cleaning grade and handle roots carefully to avoid mechanical damage
  • Pack roots in well – ventilated in crates
  • Send to the market with or without leaves

check out my other article:Some Basic points that are important in Bitter Gourd Cultivation

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