Cultivation of Tomato (Full Guide)

Cultivation of Tomato (Full Guide)

Tomatoes

Introduction

in this article, I’m going to tell you about the Cultivation of Tomato

  • Botanical name: Solanum Lycopersicon
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Botanical Features
  • Leaf  type – Compound leaves
  • Leaf arrangement – Alternate
  • Number of sepals, petals – they are 5 petals and sepals
  • Flower petal colour – yellow colour
  • Stamen number – 5 stamen
  • Fruit type – fleshy

Growth Habit

  • According to the growth of the shoots, there are three growing types
  • Determinate type (Bush type) – Set and ripen all fruits at nearly the same times. Suitable for cultivated in an open areas
  • Indeterminate type (vine type) – Continue growing and set fruits over a long period of time. Suitable for greenhouse cultivation
  • Semi-determinate – Show growth characters of determinate type and indeterminate type

Importance

  • Use to produce value-added products – Sauce, tomato ketchup, tomato paste
  • Rich in Vitamins and minerals – vitamin A, Vitamin C
  • Contain lycopene pigment – Lycopene pigment includes in red colour tomatoes. Lycopene is important to prevent  cancer

Soil and Climatic requirements

Cultivation of Tomato
Small tomato Plants
  • Soil requirements
  • Tomato grows well on most mineral soil that has proper water holding capacity and aeration
  • It prefers deep well-drained soil

Climatic requirements

  • Temperature – 20 °C – 27°C
  • Day-night temperature difference – 6 °C
  • High temperature affect for fruit setting
  • pH 5.8 – 6.8
  • Elevation (1000 – 2000m)
  • Maintaining and develop of the fruit. Adverse climatic conditions may affect for poor productions
  • High temperature during flower season may cause for
  • Delaying flowering, poor pollination, Shuttering of flowers, Rapid spreading of fungal diseases
  • Very low and high temperature adversely effect for the crop

Cultivation

Cultivation of Tomato
Tomato Cultivation

Field Establishment and cultural practices

  • Time of Planting – mid-march or End of August
  • Nursery Management
  • Seed requirement – 200 – 250Kg/ha
  • Nursery period 14 – 21 days
  • 1m*3m size raised bed is recommended

Land preparation

  • Selected field should not have a history of a cultivation of a solanaceous crop
  • Plough the land to a depth of 20 – 30cm
  • Prepare levelled raised beds to a height of 15 -20cm
  • Make planting holes
  • Spacing – 80 – 85cm
  • Size of hole (1x1x1) /(30x30x30)cm
  • Incorporate well-decomposed organic matter – 6-12 t/ha

Field establishment

  •  Field establishment is one of the most important aspects of Cultivation of Tomato
  • Before uproot seeding from the nursery moisten then nursery bed thoroughly
  • Tray nurseries, potted plants or block nurseries can be used to minimize damages on root
  • One plant per hole
  • Planting in the  afternoon
  • Heavy rainy periods not suitable for cultivation
  • Seeding must be shaded with plant material until they are established

Other cultural practices

Irrigation

  • Water the plant regularly especially during
  • Uneven water application leads to physiological disorders in fruits.
  • Early days irrigate daily. Thereafter watering should be done based on the crop requirement

Weed Management

  • It should be done in 3 and 6 weeks after transplanting. Straw mulch can be used to suppress weeds

Staking

  • done before covering
  • to avoid falling of plant need to provide any support (2-3 weeks after planting)

Training and Pruning

  • Training and Pruning is one of the most important aspects of Cultivation of Tomato
  • Indeterminate types
  • By using sharp knife old lateral branches should be removed

Fertilizer application

(Kg/ha) 

 UREATSPMOP
BD6532565
TD1 (3WAP)65  
TD2 (6WAP)65 65
Fertilizer Table

Pests and Diseases control

Cultivation of Tomato
an infected Tomato plant

Pests

1.Tomato pod borer (Helicovera armigera)

  • Damage and symptoms  – damage to leaves, flowers, bores in fruits
  • Control – if the damages are not severe collect and destroy the caterpillars. If the damages are severe apply insecticide

Leaf  minor (Liriomyza sativae)

  • Damage and symptoms – large consume internal tissues of the leaves
  • It may cause for reduction of food production
  • Control – remove damaged leaves, yellow coloured polythene trap, protect natural enemies.

White fly (Bemisa tabaci)

  • Damage and Symptoms – they suck sap from the leaves
  • Control – yellow coloured polythene trap

Cut worm

  • Damage and Symptoms-  cut the base
  • Control – ploughing the soil to expose to sunlight, flooding the land with water

Cucurbit fly (Bactocera diversa)

  • Damage and Symptoms – Damage to Fruits
  • Control – Pheromone trap, deep burring of affected fruits

Nematode attack (Meloidigyne spp.)

  • Damage – from knots due to damage of female nematodes, adversely affect root functions and nutrient intake. damaged plants get stunted, wilting and pale colour leaves
  • Control – turning of soil crop rotation, apply poultry manual

Other pests – leaf-eating caterpillars, Aphids, Leaf Hoppers, Trips, tomato bugs

Disease control

Bacterial diseases

Bacterial wilt

  • Causal organisum – Bacterial
  • Symptoms – sudden and permanently wilting similar to water stress, the foliage remains green .first wilt younger leaves from adventitious roots at the basal part of the stem
  • Control – crop rotation, use wilt resistant varieties, soil sterilization

Fungi diseases

Dumping off

  • Symptoms – Rotting the base of the nursery plants and die off
  • Control – prepare nursery beds in well-drained virgin soil or subsoil, use fungicides – Thiran, Captan

Early Bright

  • Symptoms – Symptoms first appear on the lower, older leaves as brown spots with contriving. as the disease matures, it spread outward on the leaf surface causing it to turn yellow and die. The stem, fruit and upper portion of the plant will become infected. fruit can be infected at any stage of maturity; spots on fruits are leathery, black with raised concentric ridges and generally occur near the stem, infected fruit may drop from the plant
  • Control – apply recommended fungicides, crop rotation

Late Bright

  • Symptoms – irregularly shaped water-soaked lesions can be observed on young leaves. At the top part of the plant. under humid conditions, lesions become brown. brown lesions can occur on stems and leaf pedicels
  • Control – ensure field sanitation by eliminating diseased materials, grow resistance verities, used recommended fungicides, remove unnecessary branches and leaves

Virus

Anthracnose

  • Causal Organism – Fungi
  • Sunken brown spots on fruits and leaves, discolouration of buds and dieback of plants, affected flowers fall off
  • Control – crop rotation, field sanitation, destroy affected plants, use recommended fungicides

Cucumber Mosaic Virus (C M V)

  • Causal organism – Virus
  • Symptoms – stunted plants, narrow leaves, mosaic appearance and curling of leaves, no uniform ripening of fruits
  • Control – destroy affected plants

Tobacco mosaic virus (T M V)

  • Causal organism – virus
  • Symptoms – stunted plants, narrow leaves, mosaic appearance and curling of leaves, no uniform ripening of fruits
  • Controls – destroy affected plants

Tomato curly top virus (CT)

  • Causal organism – virus
  • Symptoms – stunted plants, leaves curly upwards
  • Reduce fruit size. Disease spread through leafhoppers. Not spreading through infected seeds or plant parts
  • Control – vector control

Leaf curl virus

  • Causal organism – virus
  • Symptoms – Stunted plants, smaller leaves, straight apical bud, form yellow colour in between ribs, dropping of leaflets, a large number of lateral leaves, no fruit set. younger leaves affected first. Disease spread through whitefly, no spreading through infected seeds or plant parts
  • Control – vector control, remove affected plants, crop cultivation

Spotted wilt

  • Causal organism – virus
  • Symptoms – Stunted plants, mature leaves turn to yellow colour, leaves get copper colour yellow or red colour patches on fruits surface
  • Control – vector control, cultivate resistance varieties

Physiological disorders

Blossom end Rot

  • Damage – Dark green water-soaked spots appear at the blossom end of the fruit and enlarge until the fruits begin to ripen. Affected tissues are hard and healthy initially but due to secondary infection, fruit rot can be developed
  • Reasons – lack of water
  • Control – properly maintain soil moisture, water regularly to avoid drought stress

Cracking of fruits

  • Damage-  concentric cracks form around the top of the tomato fruit or splitting of fruits
  • Reasons – Rapid or sudden changes in soil moisture level. Ca deficiency, sudden rain or high temperature
  • Control – cultivate resistance varieties, maintain soil moisture properly, Supply required amount of Calcium

Harvesting and Post Harvest operations

Tomato Harvest

Harvesting

Harvesting is one of the most important aspects of Cultivation of Tomato

  • Harvesting indices –  when the colour changes from green to yellow should be harvested and 60 – 65 days after planting
  • Method – Cut the fruit with stack by using a sharp knife
  • Average yield – 20 -30 t/ha      With sprinkler irrigation – 60 -65 t/ha
  • Harvesting times
  • Determinate type: 6 – 8
  • Indeterminate type: 12-13

Post Harvest handling

  • Collect harvested fruits to a container, do not drop on the soil, do not expose to the sun, do not on the floor, Grading and sorting pack in well-ventilated crates (20 – 25kg). cold storage is suitable

check out my other article: Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation (Full Guide)

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