Diseases of Dairy Animals

Diseases of Dairy Animals


Diseases of  Dairy Animals

in this article, I’m going to tell you about Diseases of Dairy Animals

How to Identify a sick animal

  • Off foods
  • High Temperature ( 101.5 F / 38.6 C )
  • Laboured breathing
  • Depression – drooping head and ears
  • Reluctant to move/get up
  • No Regurgitation
  • Lost of weight/emaciation
  • Eye and nasal discharge
  • Changes in dung / Urine
  • Limping
  • Changes in body shape
  • Ruffled hair



What is Bloat?

Bloat is a form of indigestion marked by excessive accumulation of gas in the rumen.

Frothy Gas Bloat

Free Gas Bloat ( Obstruction in oesophagus)

  1. Removal of gas by
    1. Stomach Tube
    1. Trocar and cannula
    1. Ruminotomy

2.   Using Antifoaming Agents

  • Vegetable oil
    • Mineral oil (Paraffin)
    • Sesame oil
    • Anti bloat agents

Dog Bite

  • Normal Bite
  • Rabid Dog bite
  • First Aids



A wound is a type of physical trauma whereby the integrity of the skin or of any tissue is compromised

It is a separation or discontinuity of the skin mucous membrane or tissue caused by physical, chemical or biological insult


  • Blunt injuries – RTA, Falls, assault, bite
  • Penetrating injuries – stab wounds, Gunshot
  • Surgical wounds
  • Burn injuries – Thermal burn, chemical burn, electrical burn, Radiation burn, cold injury

Type of wounds according to morphological characteristics

  1. Bruises –     Close wounds, Blunt  trauma, skin discolouration
  2. Hematoma – A close wound, caused by damage to the blood vessels
  3. Abrasion–skin surface is rubbed off
  4. Lacerated wounds – tearing of tissues
  5. Penetrated wounds- caused  by  sharp pointed objects, small opening, maybe very deep
  6. Perforating wounds – Gunshot wounds                                                                                                                             

External Parasites

  • Ticks
  • Fleas
  • Mites
  • Louse
  • Bloodsucking flies
  • Home flies
  • Mosquitos
  • Bot fly

Internal Parasites

  • Roundworms
  • Hookworms
  • Lungworms
  • Eye worms
  • Tapeworms
  •  Flukes
  • Coccidia


Diseases of  Dairy Animals

Metabolic Disorders

  1. Milk Fever
Diseases of  Dairy Animals

2.Grass tetany

Common Bacterial Diseases

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS)

Caused by pasteurella Multocida

fever, hypersalivation, nasal discharge, and difficult respiration, subcutaneous swelling

in the pharyngeal region that extends to the ventral neck and brisket cyanosis, recumbence, diarrhoea.

BQ / Black quarter

Caused by Clostridium Chauvoei 

Affect young animals

Characteristic edematous and crepitant swellings develop in the hip, shoulder, chest, back, neck, or elsewhere.


Caused by Brucella abortus

Yellowish granular necrotic areas in cotyledons and chorion is opaque and thickened with a leathery consistency. Called leathery placenta


 Bacteriology – Bacterial culture

 Serology – Serum Agglutination test


 Screening test for milk samples(Milk Ring test)


 Vaccination – S19

  Cull seropositive cows

Tuberculosis /TB

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease of animals caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium Bovis  (M.bovis)


Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, caused by bacteria of genus Leptospira. Leptospira hardjobovis.

Common Viral Diseases

  1. FMD
  • Severe Highly contagious vesicular viral disease
  • Affect all cloven-hoofed animals
  • Apthovirus of the family Picornaviridae
  • Seven Stains ( A, O, C, SAT 1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia1 )
  • Incubation period ( 2 – 14 days )


  • Fever
  • Blisters in the mouth and on feet
  • Drop-in milk production
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Frothing of mouth
  • Cows may develop blisters on teats
  • Lameness

2. Efimaral Fever

  • Three-day sickness
  • Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF or Bovine Epizootic Fever)  is a non-contagious arthropod-borne disease (arbovirus from the Rhabdoviridae family) of cattle,
  • Characterized by an acute fever of short duration, with high morbidity and low mortality.

Clinical Signs

Fever usually lasting only 2-3 days

  • Stiffness, with a shifting lameness affecting one or more legs. Some animals become recumbent and may remain down for up to a week
  • Subcutaneous swelling in the sub-mandibular area or around limb joints
  • Elevated respiratory rate and sometimes dyspnoea
  • Nasal and ocular discharges
  • Drooling of saliva
  • Peri orbital swelling
  • Increased excitability and agitation.

check out my other article:How to Start Farm from Scratch and Make Money

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