Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation (Full Guide)

Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation (Full Guide)

Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation
Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca

Introduction

in this article, I’m going to tell you about Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation. Originated in Brazil with Central America.

Advantages

Low inputs and less cultural practices

High production

Drought tolerant crops

Less pests and diseases attack

Suitable for degraded lands

Mixed cropping can be done

  • Green gram
  • Black gram
  • Cowpea

Can be grown successfully in many agricultural regions

Can be grown throughout the year

Easy to propagate from stem cuttings

Substitute food  for rice

  • Moisture % – 62.8
  • Energy (Kcal/100g) – 580
  • Protein % – 0.53
  • Starch %  – 31.0
  • Sugar % –  0.83
  • Dietary fiber% –  1.40

Important animal feed

Major Horticultural export crop

Produce value added products

It has several industrial users

Starch

Fructos

Alcohol production

Rich in minerals and vitamins

Advantages of stem

  • Use to produce plywood
  • for paper production
  • Use for cloth industry

Advantages of leaves

Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Chips
  • Use for human food
  • Animal feed
  • Organic manure
  • Mulches

Toxic compounds of Cassava

  • Linamarin and lotaustralin
  • Both are different cyanogenic glucosides in cassava plant
  • Roots and matured leaves contain the highest amount of linamarin (tender leaves contain more latex.so medium-size or young leaves good for consumption
  • Linamarin produces the toxic compound hydrogen (HCN) which can be hazardous the consumer

Climatic and Soil requirements

  • Annual rainfall: more than 1500mm
  • Up to 1500m from the sea level
  • Temperature 20 – 25 Celcius
  • pH 5-6
  • Deep sandy loam light soil
  • Well drain and fertile soil

Cultivation

Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation
Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation

Land preparation

  • Remove weeds
  • Deep ploughing and harrowing
  • Prepare the soil as fine tilth
  • Dig holes about 20cm deep at recommended spacing

Planting materials

  • Stem cuttings are used for planting
  • Mother plants should have given more yield at the previous season
  • Well matured brown colour stems or hardwood stem
  • Pest and diseases free
  • Cutting should not have damages
  • Should have 5- 7 nodes
  • Length of a cutting 20 -25cm

Spacing

  • Branching type varieties – 120cm*120cm
  • Moderately branching type  – 90cm*90cm
  • For export market – 75cm*75cm
  • When intercropping –  2m

Planting

  • 2/3 length of the cuttings should be planted in the soil
  • There are 3 types of planting methods
  • Horizontal methods
  • Vertical method
  • Slanting methods
  • Normally 2 cuttings are planted in one hill

Fertilizer Application

 Urea(Kg/ha)TSP(Kg/ha)Mop(Kg/ha)
15 days after planting8012080
TD – 180 80
TD – 280 80
Fertilizer Table
  • Organic manure is applied 5 – 7 days before planting
  • Basil is applied 15 days after planting as there no roots when planting
  • Fertilizer should be applied when soil is moist
  • Fertilizer is applied 20 -25cm distance from plants and earthing up is done
  • Do not apply excess N fertilizer

Irrigation

  • Drought tolerant crop
  • Yield can be increased when proper irrigation is provided throughout its growth

Weed control

  • Essential for healthy growth and good yield
  • Can be controlled manually when applying fertilizer
  • Mulching
  • Intercropping

Pests

  • Scale insects – Damage to stem, sucking plant sap
  • Red spider mites – Damage to leaves, undersize in leaves
  • Whiteflies – Damage Vector of Mosaic virus
  • Rats – Damage to roots
  • Wild boars

Diseases

Mosaic Virus

  • Select planting materials from healthy plants
  • Control of whiteflies

Circuspora leaf spots

  • Field sanitation
  • Apply fungicides

Harvesting

Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation
Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Harvest

Harvesting is one of the most important aspects of Manioc/Cassava/Tapioca Cultivation.

Harvesting indices

  • Stop the plant growth
  • Yellowing of lower leaves
  • 50% of leaves become died
  • Shedding of lower leaves
  • Stem are visible clearly
  • The soil near the stem base of the stem shows cracking

Harvesting

  • Tubers can be uprooted by using fork
  • Manually pulling is recommended
  • Tuber should not be damaged when harvesting
  • Remove sol and other dirt materials
  • Separate tubers from stem with the neck

check out my other article:Potato Cultivation (Full Guide)

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