Potato Cultivation (Full Guide)

Potato Cultivation (Full Guide)

Potato Cultivation (Full Guide)
Potatoes

Introduction

in this article, I’m going to tell you about Potato Cultivation. Originated in Andes highlands in Peru and Europe hilly areas

Advantages

Humen Food

  • Boil tubers
  • As a curry
  • Chips
  • Sweets

Climatic Requirements

  • The optimum day temperature is 20 – 25 Celcius
  • Temperature different between day and night should be 10 Celcius

Soil Requirements

Potato Cultivation (Full Guide)
Soil
  • Well-drained
  • Sandy Loam Soil
  • pH 5- 6

Recommended Varieties

Hillstar

Granala

Short oval, Yellow,Fairly rough skin yellow flesh fairly deep eyes 20 – 25

De siree

Good resistance to tuber blight long – oval shape red smooth skin pale yellow flesh shallow eyes. 15 – 20 t/ha

Kondor

Very large, Oval, Red Skin, moderately deep eyes. Yellow  flesh yield 20 – 25 t/ha

Sante

Isna

Short oval yellow  skin, Yellow flesh rather shallow eyes 20 t/ha

Raja

Local Varieties

Sita

Tolerance to the late bright round oval shape, Yellow skin white flesh shallow eyes 20 – 25 t/ha

Krushi

Tolerance to the late bright, Round oval shape yellow skin, white-yellow flesh, medium depth eyes  20t/ha

Lukshmi

Moderately resistance to the late blight round to oval shape, white skin with shallow skin

Menike

Round to oval shape, white skin with shallow eyes. 20 – 25 t/ha

Seed Potato Selection

  • Seed Propagated by tubers
  • Tuber should be true to type or genetically  pure
  • It should be free from infestation of pests and diseases  like tuber moth, bacterial wilt (rind disease) and viruses
  • It should be healthy well matured and uniform in sizes
  • Each tuber should have 2-3cm long 3-5 sprouted buds
  • It requires a rest period of about 2.5 to 3 months before they can be used for seed (Dormancy Period)
  • Medium to big sized tuber should be used for planting
  • Medium-sized tubers are planted hole big sized tubers are cut into pieces
  • Each about 30g in weight and harvesting 3- 5 sprouted buds

Seed rate

Potato production for consumption:- 2500Kg /ha for seed potato production:- 4000Kg/ha

Removing the apical bud

The first sprout is broken from the seed tuber then the lateral shoots can be prepared tubers can be planted 2 weeks  after broken the apical buds

This should not be done in physically weak tubers

Cultivation

Potato Cultivation (Full Guide)
Potato beds

Land selection

  • Slop should be lesser than 40%
  • Solanaceous crops have not been cultivated at the previous season

Land Preparation

  • Plough up to the depth of 30 – 40cm.
  • ridge and furrows are more suitable.
  • spacing between  two furrows:- 60cm depth of a furrow:- 18cm
  • for seed potato cultivation spacing of two furrows  in 45cm

Dolomite/Lime Application

  • Dolomite/Lime is applied for red yellow podsolic soil to increase pH
  • Rate – 1mt/ha
  • Application time – 2 weeks before planting

Planting

Apply decomposed cow dung 10 -20 mt/ha or 5 -10mt of poultry manure into furrows and cover with thin soil layer. then apply inorganic fertilizer mixture

Spacing between two tubers

Diameter of tubersSpacing between tubers
15-2715
29 – 3525
36 – 4545
46  – 5560

Place the tubers and apply 4 – 6 cm deep soil layer to cover seed Potatoes

Fertilizer Application

There are different fertilizer recommendations for different  cultivation areas

Irrigation

Should be irrigated well during dry period. Irrigation should be done at least 3 days interval

Earthing up

Earthing up is done after applying fertilizer. Earthing up is carried out when 15 – 20cm high.

it helps to,

  • Prevent greening
  • Increase the Yield
  • Weed Control
  • Keeps  Soil loose

Weed Control

Weed Control is one of the most important aspects of Potato Cultivation. Field should be free from weeds.weeding can be controlled by applying a chemical herbicide. When earthing up weeds are controlled

Diseases

Potato late blight

  • Phytophthora infections
  • Fungi diseases
  • Affect  very seriously in humid weather
  • Apply fungicides to control

Potato early bright

Potato mosuic virus

Bacterial Wilt

Common Scab

  • Bacterial Disease

Black Leg

  • Bacterial Disease

Pests

  • Potato tuber moth
  • Nettle grub
  • Cutworm
  • Mites
  • Root eating ants
  • Slugs
  • Nematode

Harvesting

Potato Cultivation (Full Guide)
Potato Harvest

Harvesting is one of the most important aspects of Potato Cultivation. Potatoes are harvested when the tubers are finally grown

Harvesting indices

  • 80% of leaves turn in to yellow colour
  • Tubers can’t be pealed with fingers

Vegetative parts of potatoes are removed at the plant beds before 10 -14 days for harvesting

  • This Practice helps to mature and thicken the skin
  • Can be harvested without damaging tubers

check out my other article: Carrot Cultivation (Full Guide)

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