Rambutan Cultivation (Full Guide)

Rambutan Cultivation (Full Guide)

Introduction

Rambutan  Cultivation

in this article, I’m going to tell you about the Rambutan Cultivation

Botany of the plant

  • Botanical name: Nephelium lappaceum
  • Family: Sapindaceae
  • Origin; Malaysia and Indonesia
  • Tropical fruiting trees
  • Rambutan is a very tasty and beautiful fruit
  • Their outer rinds are covered with soft pliable, hairy, spines and hence acquired the name ‘but’ in Malay

Nutritional Value

  • Water                  82g
  • Energy                 64k/salary
  • Protein                1g
  • Fat                        0.1g
  • Carbohydrates   16.5g
  • Calcium               20mg
  • Phosphorus        15mg
  • C vitamin             53mg
  • Fiber                     3g
  • Niacin                   0.4mg

Description

  • Rambutan trees can grow up to 25m tall if not pruned.
  • Have a straight trunk and a dense crown. The leaves are dark green.
  • Flowers can be male, female or hermaphrodite.
  • The fruit is oval-shaped and golf ball-sized.it can be pinkish-red or yellow within a thin leathery rind coward in soft spines called the spin turn. 

Health benefits

  • Most healthy diets include plenty of fruit,
  • It has the ability to absorb iron and helps create younger-looking skin.
  • Copper acids with red blood cell production and helps maintain healthy bones, nerves, and blood vessels.
  • Help control heart and blood pressure.
  • It saves natural antiaging therapy.

Cultivation

Preferred Climate and Soil

  • Elevation: up to 500m 600m above sea level.
  • Rainfall: evenly distributed 1500-2000mm
  • Temperature: 27-30°c
  • Humidity: 75/.- 80/.
  • Well, drained sandy loam soil.
  • PH: 4.5 – 6.5
  • Soil depth: 2-3m 

Recommended varieties

  • Mainly 3 varieties recommended
    • Malwana 1st selection[malwana special]
    • Malayan red
    • Malayan yellow

Malwna special

  • Orangish red colour. Round in shape.
  • Weight of one fruit 40-50g
  • Flesh and very tasty fruit.
  • Easy to remove the flesh.
  • High juice content.
  • Can store 3 days after harvesting.
  • Suitable for commercial cultivation.

Malayan red

  • Light red in colour.
  • Oval shape fruit.
  • Weight of one fruit 28-35g.
  • Easy to remove the flesh.
  • Juice content is the middle level.
  • Can store 3 days after harvesting

Malayan yellow

  • Fruits are yellow in colour.
  • Weight of one fruit 30-38g.
  • Easy to remove the flesh.
  • Very testy and high juice content.
  • Can store 1day only after harvesting.
  • This variety is most susceptible to mealybug damage.

Propagation

  • Rambuttan can be grown from seed or by vegetative propagation.

Spacing

  • 10m-10m ; 100 plants/ha
  • 10m-08m ; 125 plants/ha

Chemical Fertilizer Application

Urea g/plantRock phosphateMOPKieserite
BD (2 days before planting)  120  225  100  
1st year  40  75  40  
2nd year  80  150  80  
3rd year  110  225  110  

For bearing plants

  • From 4th year to 7th year
Urea g/plantRock phosphateMOP  Kieserite
After every harvesting time  450  550  260  100
After every harvesting time  150  550  260   
  • From 8th year
Urea g/plantRock phosphateMOP  Kieserite
After every harvesting time  600  750    350  100
After every harvesting time    200750  350   

Pests and Diseases

Pests

Major pests of Rambutan

  • Stem borer
  • Fruit borer
  • Fruit weber
  • Mealybug
  • Fruit fly
  • Leaf folder

Higher animals

  • Bats
  • Birds
  • Monkeys
  • squirrels

Fruit Borer

  • This damage can occur in the fruit ripening stage.
  • Damage is done by larvae.
  • They damaged the flesh of the fruit.

Control

  • Field sanitation and field observation.
  • Covering of fruits.

Fruit fly

  • They damage to the flesh of the fruit  and it becomes hafly juice.

 Control

  • Can be controlled by using the IPM method.
  • Damage fruits should be collected into black polythene and seal, after expose to the sunlight.
  • Covering of fruits and use pheromone trap.

Mealybug

  • It reduces the quality of fruits.
  • Decrease marketing demand.
  • They are spreading by ants.

Control

  •  should do proper pruning after harvesting.
  • To avoid spreading through the ants, cover the stem with polythene strips which grease is applied. 

Higher animals

  • Some higher animals such as birds ,monkeys, squirrels are damaging rambutan cultivation.
  • Control
  • Use light traps and sound producing equipments.
  • Small trees can be covered with a net.

Disease of Rambutan Cultivation            

  • Fruit rot
  • Powdery mildew
  • Sooty mold
  • Leaf spot

Disorders of fruits

  • Pocket Rambutan
  • Splitting of fruits

Powdery mildew

  • Usually infect to the immature leaves , flowers , and fruits.
  • The peal of infected fruits become black color and dry off,when maturing peal is cracking.

Control

  • Do proper pruning .
  • Field observation and distroye infected plant parts.
  • Chemical control by apply sulper mix solution.

Harvesting

Fruit Season

  • Rambutan produce fruit from October –mid-January
  • Rambutan must be harvested when ripening
  • This is usually 2 or 3 weeks after the colour is changing
  • Fruits can be harvested with hand or picking by a pole from the ground

Grading, processing and storage

  • Should be select well matured quality fruits
  • Remove pest damaged and disease infected fruits
  • Selected fruits pack in plastic crates and rambutan leaves are used to reduce the damages

 Storage

  • rambutan should be cooled with water after picking and stored at 8-10 °c in humid condition

check out my other article:How to Grow Masan (Full Guide)

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